Not sure what kind of attorney you need? This section lists different Utah State Bar Lawyer Referral Directory legal categories with brief descriptions that should help you to determine the proper category for your referral through this office.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Business-related licensing issues. This area includes matters before the Alcohol Beverage Commission, Federal Trade Commission, Civil Service, Board of Education, Real Estate Commission, Federal Aviation Association, OSHA, Department of Transportation, medical and other professional licensing groups among others.

Government administered benefits. State and federal government agencies administering benefits and compensation such as workers’ compensationsocial security benefits, unemployment benefits and the like.

ADOPTIONS
Includes parents placing a child for adoption, parents seeking to adopt, and adopted children. Adoption terminates parental responsibilities of the birth parents and transfers the responsibilities to the adoptive parents.

Related site: Utah State Courts

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)
See heading DISPUTE RESOLUTION / MEDIATION

AGRICULTURAL
Agricultural law deals with plants, animals, land use, environmental rules, and the use of food products.

ANTITRUST
Protects trade and commerce from unfair restraints, monopolies and price-fixing.

APPELLATE
Appellate law begins where most other litigation ends. If a party is unhappy with the outcome of the trial or other legal proceeding, then he or she may appeal the decision in some instances. The appellate record is limited to what was presented to the trial court.

BANKING & FINANCE
Involves issues in the area of banking transactions and tax law as well as regulatory compliance issues.

BANKRUPTCY
Individuals, businesses, or creditors seeking to have debts discharged or reorganized by the federal court. Most common bankruptcy petitions are: Chapter 7 (Individual Bankruptcy), Chapter 11 (Business Reorganization) and Chapter 13 (Wage Earner’s Plan).

Related site: United States Bankruptcy Court District of Utah

BUSINESS & COMMERCIAL
Business law deals with the forming of business entities (corporations, partnerships, joint ventures and limited liability companies), business litigation and advice on such issues as shareholder rights, commercial leasing, consumer protection, mergers and acquisitions, and contracts.

Commercial law deals with the sale and distribution of goods, the financing of credit transactions and negotiable instruments.

CIVIL LITIGATION
A lawsuit filed in court in order to receive damages or to recover a right. Civil litigation usually involves disputes between individuals, businesses or non-profit organizations.

CIVIL RIGHTS
The rights of individuals to receive equal treatment in education, employment, housing, and more. The term is also used to describe the advancement of equality for all people regardless of the legally protected categories of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, and religion. Also includes freedom of speech, expression, and association; freedom of religion, including the separation of church and state; the right to privacy; safe prison and jail conditions; and equal protection and due process of our laws.

Related site: ACLU of Utah

COLLECTIONS
Collection of unpaid debts.

Related sites: Federal Trade Commission – Facts for Consumers | Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

CONSTITUTIONAL
The interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution as well as relationships among the states, the states and the federal government, the three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) and the rights of the individual in relation to both federal and state government.

CONSTRUCTION
Involves the law of contracts, construction defect issues, and workplace injuries.

CONSUMER LAW
Broad area covering most issues related to consumer purchases including consumer fraud, the Deceptive Trade Practice Act (DTPA), banking matters, “Lemon Law” (new cars), credit problems, homeowner improvements and repairs, utility problems, and small claims court representation.

Related Sites: Utah Division of Consumer Protection | Consumer Action Website

CONTRACTS
Legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties (individuals or businesses), created when the parties to the agreement assume a legal duty under the contract.

CORPORATE LAW
Issues related to businesses including forming corporations and partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, non-profit corporations, buying/selling/dissolving a business, franchise law, employment contracts and executive compensation agreements.

CRIMINAL LAW
Criminal defense and other legal assistance with infractions, misdemeanors, felonies, traffic violations, license suspensions, juvenile proceedings, expungements, parole violations and municipal ordinance violations.

Related site: Utah State Courts

DEBTOR-CREDITOR
Applies to all non-bankruptcy aspects of the credit/debit relationship. Includes proper practices for extending credit, consumers’ rights concerning collection of debt, and different forms of credit satisfaction (including liens and debt priority).

DISCRIMINATION
See heading CIVIL RIGHTS

DISABILITY
Disability law is largely regulated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. This Act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, housing, education, and access to public services.

Related Site: Disability Law Center

DISPUTE RESOLUTION / MEDIATION
When parties are unwilling or unable to resolve a dispute, they often turn to mediation. Disputing parties work with a neutral third party, the mediator, to resolve their disputes.

Related Sites: Utah State Courts | Utah Dispute Resolution

DIVORCE
A divorce ends marriage and all direct legal relationships between couples, except those relationships and obligations specified in the divorce decree. These may include such things as spousal support, parenting arrangements and support of children, division of property and payment of debts. See also heading FAMILY LAW

Related Site: Utah State Courts

EDUCATION
Legal issues affecting education in schools, colleges, universities, school systems and school boards, students rights and movements.

ELDER LAW
Specializes in issues faced by older individuals. Common issues include wills and trusts, health care, nursing home abuse, social security, retirement, and estate planning. See also heading ESTATE PLANNING / PROBATE

Related Site: Utah Legal Services

EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
Includes retirement, pension, and health care benefits. See headingsEMPLOYMENT / LABOR and HEALTH

EMPLOYMENT / LABOR
Issues regarding wrongful termination, discrimination, sexual harassment, wage claims, retirement/pensions, ERISA, labor arbitration proceedings, negotiation/preparation of collective bargaining agreements, work-related injuries when company does not subscribe to workers’ compensation, and retaliation by a company due to a workers’ compensation claim.

Related Site: Utah Department of Labor

ENERGY LAW
See heading ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Protection of natural resources and the regulation of the businesses that impact them.

Related Site: Utah Department of Environmental Quality

ESTATE PLANNING / PROBATE
Drafting wills, estate planning, tax planning, probating wills, and estate issues for deceased individuals. Additional areas include mental health matters, guardianships, and elder law issues such as the living will and power of attorney.

FAMILY LAW
Issues related to the relationship of families including adoption, child abuse matters, guardianship, divorce, annulment, support modification and enforcement, protective orders, same sex-partners, rights of grandparents, paternity, pre-nuptial agreements, co-habitation agreements, and interstate/international matters. Issues related to children including custody orders and modifications, child support, contempt actions, contested paternity, interstate/international issues, and Children’s Protective Services cases.

Related Sites: Utah State Courts | Utah Legal Services | Legal Aid Society of Salt Lake | ABA Guide to Family Law

FORECLOSURE
Legal procedure that may be used by a lender if a homeowner (the mortgage holder) fails to make mortgage payments.

GENERAL PRACTICE
May include both civil and criminal law.

GOVERNMENT
See headings ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, CIVIL RIGHTS, andCONSTITUTIONAL

GUARDIANSHIPS
Legal arrangement under which one person (a guardian) has the legal right and duty to care for another (the ward) and his or her property. A guardianship is established because of the ward’s inability to legally act on his or her own behalf.

Related Site: Utah State Courts

HEALTH
Provides legal guidelines for the provision of healthcare services and healthcare benefits including health care insurance. See alsoEMPLOYEE BENEFITS

HOUSING
Issues related to evictions and lock-outs, home foreclosure, habitability and repairs, and problems with federally subsidized rentals.

Related Site: Utah Legal Services

IMMIGRATION LAW & NATURALIZATION
Issues related to visas, naturalizations, labor certifications, fraud investigations, deportation and exclusion, and political asylum.

Related Sites: Catholic Community Services | Holy Cross Ministries |International Rescue Committee | Multicultural Legal Center

INDIAN LAW
A separate and distinct body of laws and judicial system pertaining to tribal and individual broad range of rights.

INSURANCE LAW
Life, health, disability, medicare/medicaid, home, fire, and property insurance issues including arbitration and the obligation of defense and indemnity. See also headings EMPLOYEE BENEFITS,EMPLOYMENT / LABOR, and HEALTH.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract “properties” has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered. See also heading PATENT / TRADEMARK / COPYRIGHT.

INTERNATIONAL LAW
International business matters including international trade agreements, customs, tariffs, and foreign social security/pension/retirement benefits.

JUVENILE 
Applies to juveniles under the age of 18 who have committed a criminal offense.

Related Site: Utah State Courts

LANDLORD / TENANT
Representation of landlords and tenants in contract issues related to leases and rentals of commercial and residential properties. This area also includes matters related to deed restrictions and homeowners associations.

Related Site: Utah Legal Services

LITIGATION
Process of putting a case before a trial court.

MALPRACTICE
Legal Malpractice: Representation of clients or attorneys in problems related to the disposition of a legal matter.

Medical Malpractice: Representation of patients or medical personnel in matters related to possible negligent or otherwise improper medical care resulting in an injury.

MEDIATION
See heading DISPUTE RESOLUTION / MEDIATION.

MILITARY LAW
Matters related to military duty for active service personnel and veterans.

NATURAL RESOURCES
See heading ENVIRONMENTAL LAW.

PATENT / TRADEMARK / COPYRIGHT LAW
Intellectual property matters including the application and registration of patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Related issues also include unfair competition, trade secrets, and computer law. See also headingINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY.

PERSONAL INJURY
Matters including injury to a person or damage to property that involve monetary compensation, including death. See also headingWRONGFUL DEATH.

PROBATE
See heading ESTATE PLANNING.

REAL PROPERTY / LAND USE
Commercial and residential real estate issues including preparing deeds, mortgages, closings, and foreclosures. Additional areas include complex matters such as fraud, rescission, condemnation, and eminent domain.

SOCIAL SECURITY
Representation at social security hearings including claims for Supplemental Security Income (SSI), benefit denials, and appeals for disabled, survivors, or retired claimants.

SMALL CLAIMS COURT
See heading CONSUMER LAW.

SECURITIES
Representation of investors, brokers, dealers, and customers in issues related to disputes involving federal securities matters, state securities matters, stock or investment counseling, and arbitration.

SPORTS LAW

TAX LAW
Issues related to state and federal income taxes, corporate taxes, and interstate or international tax matters. This area also includes tax counseling.

TORTS
Provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of contractual duties. A person who is legally injured may be able to use tort law to recover damages from someone who is legally responsible, or “liable,” for those injuries.

TRAFFIC OFFENSES / DUI
Violation of laws that regulate vehicle operation on streets and highways; including speed limits, traffic signal laws, and reckless driving statutes.

TRUSTS
See heading ESTATE PLANNING.

WATER LAW
See heading ENVIRONMENTAL LAW.

WILLS
See heading ESTATE PLANNING.

WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
Representation of individuals for claims, denials, and hearings related to injury or illness sustained on the job.

WRONGFUL DEATH
Representation of family members on behalf of a deceased individual whose death may have been a result of negligence.